Rise of Evil – From Populism to Fascism | BETWEEN 2 WARS I 1932 Part 4 of 4

Rise of Evil – From Populism to Fascism | BETWEEN 2 WARS I 1932 Part 4 of 4

When you think of Fascism before World War
Two, you mostly think of Germany and Italy, perhaps Spain. But that’s not quite right, in the 1920s and
1930s Fascism was fashionable, and almost created a global Fascist surge. Welcome to Between-2-Wars a chronological
summary of the interwar years, covering all facets of life, the uncertainty, hedonism,
and euphoria, and ultimately humanity’s descent into the darkness of the Second World War. I’m Indy Neidell. In our early episodes of this series we covered
how Socialism and Communism spread across the world like a wildfire after the Great
War. It launched several unsuccessful Revolutions,
and in many places the Red Scare took hold. In the one case where the Socialist Revolution
was successful, Russia, we have looked at the horrors left wing authoritarian ideology
brought with it. Today we turn to the origins of the authoritarian
movements on the other side of the political spectrum, and how now in 1932 Fascism might
be on its way to a global surge. Fascism becomes a thing when Mussolini rises
to a de facto dictator with his flamboyant, bombastic new form of authoritarianism in
the 1920s. This then influences many other ideologies
that could be considered fascist, like National-Socialism, and a whole slew of different movements. According to some even Stalinism, which at
the time referred to as ‘Red Fascism’ by many other Communists. But it isn’t restricted to that. In fact, the 1930s were good times for Fascism,
with its ideas spreading like dandelion seeds in brisk wind, carried through Europe into
the Balkans and East Europe, France, Britain, the low countries, Scandinavia, Spain, Portugal,
to the New World through Brazil, Chile, Mexico, and the United States. In the Middle East, Arab versions of Fascism
challenges the status quo, and in far eastern Japan, another version of Fascism grabs control
over society. Now, in 2019, Fascism is a heavily charged
term often used, or rather abused, to frame any country, political organization or business
that holds power. The expression has been subject to inflation
in a way that it’s not really usable in a constructive manner anymore. George Orwell even wrote that ‘the word Fascism
has no meaning except so far as it signifies ‘something not desirable.” Some academics have gone so far as suggesting
not using the term at all anymore. And even in 1932, there are many different
forms of authoritarian and totalitarian ideologies. And as the example of Red Fascism, it is a
term that lends itself to a biased definition from the get-go. Or as Political-Scientist Robert Paxton put
it: ‘Everyone is sure they know what Fascism is; “A chauvinist demagogue haranguing an
ecstatic crowd; disciplined ranks of marching youths; colored-shirted militants beating
up members of some demonized minority; surprise invasions at dawn; and fit soldier sparring
through a captured city.” But Fascism is, of course, more, and when
you do dig into it, some lowest common denominators define Fascism beyond that… let’s say; purely
aesthetic definition. Again we turn to Robert Paxton:
‘Fascism may be defined as a political behaviour marked by obsessive preoccupation with community
decline, humiliation, or victimhood and by compensatory cults of unity, energy and purity,
in which a mass-based party of committed national militants, working in uneasy but effective
collaboration with traditional elites, abandon democratic liberties and pursues with redemptive
violence and without ethical or legal restraint goals of internal cleansing and external expansion.’ As I opened; the first truly fascist movement
fulfilling Paxton’s definition is Mussolini’s Italian Fascist party that arises in the aftermath
of World War 1. We’ve covered that and how it was named in
our episode about the March on Rome, the event that makes him prime minister of Italy in
1922. But a lot of his inspiration comes from three
French thinkers and activists. The first is French General Georges Boulanger
in the 1880s. His ‘Boulangisme’ is a fiercely nationalistic,
and a populist reaction to pull Conservatives into a more extreme movement. You see, Boulanger and many other Frenchmen
feel that Conservative politicians aren’t dealing aggressively enough with what they
perceive as France’s core problems. They want ‘Revanche’ against Germany for the
loss in the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) and a restoration of the French monarchy. They want the Anarchist and Socialist threat
to social organization dealt with decisively. They seek a return to law and order and an
imagined greater glory of the past. Despite being monarchist, the Boulangist movement
‘rekindles the sentiments of patriotism, egalitarianism, and popular vigilance’ (Hutton). He does so by tapping into a deeply-rooted
French sentiment of revolution in times of dissatisfaction, and Boulangism soon wins
a massive following. But to make a long story short, his movement
flounders when he gets embroiled in some very salacious sex scandals. He’s forced into exile in Belgium where he
commits suicide by putting a bullet in his head on his late mistress’ grave in 1891. In any case, it can well be argued that Boulanger
was the founding father of the first far-right populist mass movement in modern politics. Mussolini’s more left-wing ideas are influenced
by another Frenchman, the political thinker Georges Sorel and his Sorelianism. Sorel is Influenced by Socialist thinker Karl
Marx and Mutualist philosopher and politician Piere-Joseph Proudhon. But Sorel believes that labor organization
is the key to a Marxist society. He seeks a revolution of the proletariat driven
by union action, which becomes known as Syndicalism. But the central part of Sorrelianism that
Mussolini picks up is the power of myth. Sorel argues that a shared story, regardless
if it is based on lies, falsehoods, or myths, is crucial in uniting a group of people into
a movement. This belief in the power of myth and his strong
anti-democratic opinions also influence another thinker. He will, in turn, eventually attract Sorel
himself and Mussolini to abandon their leftist ideology of egalitarianism for a reactionary,
hierarchical worldview. He is Charles Maurras, the father of Integral
Nationalism. Maurras believes in militarism. He has a belief in ethnic assertion, coupled
with outspoken xenophobia, and a deeply rooted anti-Marxism. But he also believes that some aspects of
Socialism are useful. Or as he puts it; “Socialism liberated from
democratic and cosmopolitan elements fits Nationalism well as a well made glove fits
a beautiful hand.” He is opposed to liberal democracy which he
believes was responsible for degrading French culture by allowing freemasons, protestants,
jews, and foreigners to enter the French Nation. Maurras strong pro-catholic and antisemitic
views gain popularity in France in parallel to the Dreyfus Affair, the case in which Charles
Dreyfus, a French Jewish officer is wrongfully tried and convicted for treason. In reality, it is a crime committed by another
French officer; Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy. But Dreyfus is preconceived as guilty because
he is a Jew and from Alsace, hence more or less German anyway. The trial and Maurrasian thought bring about
the creation of the first really proto-fascist movement. Action Française, which will develop a staunchly
reactionary, racist, and antisemitic form of Nationalism, and have a significant impact
on a certain Adolf Hitler’s thinking. Later, when Mussolini, develops Fascism in
Italy multiple French fascist parties such as Faisceau, the Parti Populaire Français,
and Rassemblement Nationale Populaire, follow his model. A few factions will turn to violent terrorism. The most prominent of them is La Cagoule. All the way until the end of the 1930s La
Cagoule will assassinate perceived opponents of the Right. They will also sabotage any French efforts
to aid the Republicans in the Spanish Civil War. Yet, Fascism never gets as organized and centralized
as in Italy or Germany, but these movements will one day serve as a base for French collaboration
with the German Nazis. And it is Germany that provides the fertile
ground for the reactionary components of Fascism to develop into Naziism. Just like communism requires an industrialized
society, Fascism requires a modernized society in a modern nation-state. Nations with a sizable portion of people fed
up with they see as hypocritical and decadent liberal democracies of Modern Europe that
arise just before and after World War One. Here, Fascism seeks a national rebirth. But you can only go back to ‘old values’ if
they have been there before and if you feel like they are slipping away. This means that certain preconditions need
to create a ‘perfect storm.’ The enlightenment, democratic revolution,
the industrial revolution, followed by the Great War, create precisely these conditions,
and they are especially virulent in Germany. As the 20s progress, it looks like Germany
is on the path to genuinely modern society. Democracy with universal suffrage. Civil liberties. A mass media boom. Mass consumption. Cult of the automobile. Vibrant youth culture. Changing moral standards. All aspects of the German Golden Twenties. But the country is also wrought with political
strife between extremes. A fractured parliament is unable to rule effectively. Economic hardship for many parts of society. Eroding classical values. And perhaps most significant: a widespread
and shared national myth. It is The Stab in the Back conspiracy. That Germany was not genuinely defeated in
World War One and is being dealt an unfair blow though the effects of actually losing
that war, which they definitely did. And in this divided society, this myth is
seized upon in true Sorelian manner to whip up a movement of catastrophic proportions. The Maurrasian ideas of race and anti-semitism
take this ideology yet another step. You see, the Nazis imagine that the German
race is embroiled in a secret war with Zionism. Thus they transpose all of the things they
see as corrupt, derelict, and decadent in society to the Jewish faith. They even blame the imagined Stab in the Back
on the Jews. These Jews, who make up less than 1% of the
German population, who are by no means especially dominant, and many of whom are secular Jews,
and all of whom are relatively well-integrated as Germans. Many Nazi’s – shall we say – stretch the definition
of what a Jew is. Although it is still debated within the Party,
a lot of the more rabid anti-Semites consider even converts and citizens with some some
Jewish grandparents to be Jews. But following Sorel’s thoughts; the realism
for accuracy of a shared vision doesn’t matter much, as long as it can unite the troops. And although it fails at first to make Naziism
into a broad movement, it is very efficient to create a broad base of dedicated fanatics. Following Maurras lead, the Nazi movement
is also extremely anti-Marxist, and yet they recruit large parts of their militants from
Socialist Revolutionaries. Even the Name of the political party: the
German National ‘Socialist’ Workers’ Party indicates the influence of traditionally left
political thought on its origins. And in the 1920s there is a sizable part of
the Nazi Party and some German Conservative Revolutionaries who pursue a Mussolini style
Fascism. It is called Querfront, or in English; the
Third Position. In the Nazi Party, they are the Strasserists
led by Gregor and Otto Strasser. But in December 1932 they are soundly defeated
by Hitler’s version of Naziism, which rejects Mussolini’s statist and collectivist economic
aspects of Fascism. We will get back to that in the next chapter
on Germany. Instead, Hitler espouses an oligarchic economic
model. He supports private industry and finance,
allowing them relative freedom to act, as long as they are aligned with the Racist and
Nationalist goals of the party. Moreover, Germany has long adopted a conservative
welfare state. In 1932 it already has some of the world’s
most advanced labor rights, created under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck in the 1880s. So there is not even a perceived need for
more labor rights by most ordinary people. In yet another anti-semitic masterstroke,
the Nazis have also managed to channel existing anti-capitalist emotion into hatred of the
Jews. They have rhetorically equated Judaism with
banking and capitalism. It is with this rhetoric that sounds vaguely
Socialist but is in fact only racist and anti-semitic that they have made themselves a haven for
disenfranchised Socialist militants and thugs. As such anti-Semitism is shared by many of
the Fascist movements. In fact, anti-Semitism is relatively prevalent
in general in the world of the 1920s and 1930s. For instance, at this time, a poll shows that
41% of Americans feel that ‘Jews have “too much power in the United States”; 20% even
want to “drive Jews out of the United States.” To put that in relation; in 2009, 13% of Americans
thought that Jews have too much power. In 1932, when Hitler is about to seize power,
there is sizable popular support for Hitlerism in the US. At the least, it is seen as the right solution
for Germany, but similar domestic movements get less support. And as the thirties progress, much of this
Nazi support will erode when it becomes increasingly clear that Hitler’s ideology is hellbent on
murder and war. Nevertheless, there are still multiple smaller
movements aligned with Fascism. Some are tiny fringe movements like the Black
Legion, a violent sister-organization of the Ku Klux Klan. Others are a bit more significant, like the
Silver Legion of America and the German American Bund. The Silver Legion is a white-supremacist and
antisemitic underground organization, calling for a ‘Christian Commonwealth”. By 1934 they will amass about 15,000 members
actively calling for non-whites and jews to be removed from society. The German American Bund is more of a support
group for the German Nazis, as only American citizens of German descent are allowed to
join. But all in all, Fascism doesn’t gain a serious
foothold in the US. The same can be said for Great Britain also
plagued by anti-Semitism. Here several attempts are made to create a
unified Fascist movement out of several smaller groups, mostly focused on British National
Romanticism. Most significant is the British Union of Fascists
under the leadership of Sir Oswald Mosley. Though the party has a couple of ten-thousand
members, it never gains a seat in parliament. In the mid-1930s, most support vaporizes following
violent clashes between British fascists and its opposition, most significantly at the
‘Battle of Cable Street’ in London’s East End. The National Socialist Movement (NSB) in the
Netherlands has 52,000 members by 1936, but popular support declines when the Nazis in
Germany begin showing the true nature of Naziism in 1938. In Belgium, the Flemish National Union (VNV)
is founded in 1933 to advocate for reunification with The Netherlands. Rebranded Flemish National Block, it gains
16 seats in the parliament but then stagnates. In Sweden, Norway, Finland, and Denmark, Nazi-like
parties are founded, but fail to get any serious traction. In Brazil, a movement called Brazilian Integralist
Action it founded by Plínio Salgado in 1932. It uses Fascist aesthetics and mass-culture,
but rejects racism and actually has a slogan called ‘Union of all races and all peoples.’ They have an unusual approach to Nationalism
viewing it as a shared spiritual identity rather than ethnic or racial. But it sure looks like Fascism, with a green-shirted
paramilitary organization. They are anti-Marxist and anti-Liberalist,
fighting Communists in the streets from the mid-1930s, heavily destabilizing Brazil and
causing countless casualties. But although Mussolini style fascism doesn’t
succeed in many countries, many places see a move towards extreme right-wing style authoritarianism. Perhaps most significant is Japan, which as
we saw in a previous chapter follows something like Fascism too – although in a very different
way than Italy or Germany. Historians refer to this as ‘Military fascism,’
‘Emperor fascism,’ ‘fascism from above’ or simply ‘Kakushin’ – Japanese for innovation. In some ways, it’s very similar to Franco’s
Fascism in Spain. Franco also depends on a significant military
component but in difference to Japan, it is more corporatist, that is say society is divided
into distinct groups, like corporations, so that they can be easily ruled by a select
group for the “benefit” of the nation. Significantly. We will see more of that when we cover Franco
and Spain in a later episode. In any case, Japan merges military Fascism
with Colonialism, and Imperialism similar to Great Britain, and to a lesser degree,
France. In Portugal in 1933, the Estado Novo, or Second
Republic a corporatist, or interest group based far-right regime gains power. It is the continuation of the National Dictatorship
set up in a 1926 coup that puts an end to Portuguese democracy. Similar to Fascism, Estado Novo is a reactionary
and nationalist movement with great sympathies for traditional Catholicism. It opposes Socialism, Liberalism, and anti-Colonialism,
protective of Portuguese colonies such as Angola and Mozambique. It is however also very different from Mussolini’s
Fascism, especially in its more moderate use of state force. António de Oliveira Salazar, the leader of
Estado Novo, like Franco avoids meddling in international politics or joining any international
Fascist alliance. This will help Estado Novo to stay in power
until 1974 and the Carnation Revolution. In 1932, many of the countries in Europe that
became democracies in 1918 and 1919 have fallen to similar authoritarianism. Poland, the Baltic states, Yugoslavia, and
several others are now under dictatorial regimes, even actual dictators, or about to go that
way. In the end, the only countries where any kind
of Fascist movements manages to get over 20% of the electoral votes are in Italy, Germany,
Austria, Hungary, and Romania. Then, of course, there were countries where
successful fascist or vaguely fascist movements didn’t use democratic institutions to gain
power, such as Poland, Japan, or Spain. Add the authoritarian movements on the left
that arise through Socialist revolution in the USSR and is on the march in many other
places. In 1932 it’s relatively clear that the world
is not on a clear path towards universal, Liberal Democracy. So while there might not have been a ‘Global
Fascist Surge,’ there was a global anti-democratic and anti-liberal surge, sometimes taking on
the form of Fascism. Thousands of people ready to abandon the rule
of law, betray civil liberties, and deny the sanctity of human life. People that will not support any effort of
their governments to resist the actual Fascist surge. In Europe, hundreds of thousands of them will
take up arms for an ideologically aligned foreign power. These people will serve as some of the most
hardboiled perpetrators of suppression, oppression, and mass murder of those they deem as lesser
non-desirable human beings. They will be the enablers, the collaborators,
and the SS volunteers. They will betray their country, their neighbors,
and their friends to fulfill dreams of superiority and glory at the expense of all decency, humanity,
and respect for human life. If you’d like to see how Mussolini creates
Fascism, then watch our video on the March on Rome, which you can click on right here…
any moment now. Our TimeGhost Army member of the week is Hans
Ryding. With contributions from people like [!!!], we
can surge and continue doing more content like this. Be like Hans Ryding and join the TimeGhost
Army on Patreon or timeghost.tv. Remember to Subscribe and ring that bell. Anger, fear, aggression; the dark side of
the Force are they. Easily they flow, quick to join you in a fight. If once you start down the dark path, forever
will it dominate your destiny, consume you it will.


  1. This episode might be a little more academic than our other episodes, but we wanted to cover the global Fascist surge AND that it's just too simple to refer to all totalitarian states and authoritarian and repressive movements as 'Fascist'. Fascism is a very complicated concept that is still today being debated by political scientists and historians, as well as politicians and journalists. We try to give some insight to what Fascism is, what it isn't and what all those movements and countries were, if not Fascist. We appreciate that you might have a different opinion as to what Fascism was or is, and we're interested to hear your opinion. Just keep it civil and try to stay away from modern political debates, as that is not what we're here for. EDIT: As for comments claiming that Fascism was left-wing/socialist, watch the video again. Don't bother commenting if you can't bring a proper argument to the table.

    STAY CIVIL AND POLITE we will delete any comments with personal insults, or attacks.
    AVOID PARTISAN POLITICS AS FAR AS YOU CAN we reserve the right to cut off vitriolic debates.
    HATE SPEECH IN ANY DIRECTION will lead to a ban.
    RACISM, XENOPHOBIA, OR SLAMMING OF MINORITIES will lead to an immediate ban.

  2. I'm surprised you did not cover arguably the most interesting and unique of the 'fascist' movements, the Romanian Legion of the Archangel Michael. Many historians have described it as one of the most peculiar phenomena of the age.
    1) They were arguable the group with the most popular appeal during the interwar period, and would have been elected to power if not for what was the most corrupt democracy in Europe.
    2) They were the most suppressed of any of these movements, losing thousands to extrajudicial murder by the state, which makes the ''blood martyrs" of Nazism look like a joke.
    3) They focused far more on the spirit than on the race or the state, almost embodying a Medieval style chivalric order with vows of poverty and chastity
    4) Their recruiting base was almost entirely university students, which I don't think was the case with any other similar movement.
    5) Their leaders had a charismatic quality which people found extremely magnetic. Jewish historian Nicholas Nagy-Talavera, who was personally familiar with the Legion surprisingly stated "More than half a century later, if one ignores the Legion's later actions, it is not easy to condemn the Legion's ideas. If only all Legionaries had been like Codreanu, Mota or the Transylvanian Ion Banea!" How what was supposedly the "most anti-semitic movement" in Europe gained such an admirer is quite extraordinary.

  3. Nazi propaganda pretty-much amounted to saying that Jews were behind bolshevism, liberalism, capitalism, and anything else they didn't like. Jews were behind bad art and art they didn't understand. Jews were also the cause of arthritis, cancer, and ed. They were also the reason so many Nazi leaders had such clear "non-Aryan" features. No wait, ignore the last sentence and we'll shoot you if you repeat it.
    All humour aside, there are far too many people like this online today.

  4. I was born in the west and I am considered educated. But I can tell you this…I have never heard anything like this in my life. Where did you get this education if I may be so bold as to ask??

  5. Useful view point especially when combined with that from other YouTube channels such as TIK. I have recently b been reading "Travellers in the Third Reich" by Julia Boyd which provides an interesting view of the fall of Germany into the clutches of the Nazis.

  6. "Estado Novo". Here in Brasil we also had a period called like that, starting in 1937.
    Your video about 1930 was all about India and Britain, so it misses to mention the end of the "Café com Leite" system. Getúlio Vargas headed the provisional government until 1934 when he was indirect elected after a new constitution was made. He abstained from participating in the first election, which Plínio was one of the candidates, because he was planing a coup, without surprises blaming the communists…
    I guess this will be covered in a latter episode.

  7. 14:27
    Me: (starts chocking on water)

    Me: (catches breath* takes a bite of pizza*)
    Me:(chokes on pizza)


  8. From your explanation, it feels like countries born out of colonialism have fascist flair. Most of them were impoverished as western colony, their cultures changed, and then started developing myths about national unity with ideas salvaged from the past.

    My country, Indonesia, is especially like that. We imagine ourselves as united people. Our national motto is "unity in diversity". We use the history of Majapahit empire to foster our sense of unity, that we used to be one big empire. Our first two presidents were authoritarian. We also hate communist to the bone, mostly due to the New Order propaganda.

  9. Hey time gost team yall sould do all yall reaserch with ecosia they are a search engine that plants trees i know this is not realted to ypu vidio but it is inportant !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

  10. Good day, is it convenient to provide the details of the world map you have used for the background (as in when it was published and the publisher?) I do of course respect copyright. Thanks

  11. Hi Indy and the team, I recently read an article concerning a certain racial and religious congress that was held in my country a few days ago which noted that academics from universities, especially public universities were crucial in the development of the country. My question is, did the academics have any effect in the rise of fascism in Germany, Italy and etc.?

  12. Kinda of strange… There used to be a comment link to a video refuting the claims made in this video less than two hours ago.
    So it's either been deleted, shadow-banned, or censored…

  13. Corporatism is largely embraced by socialists, or you know, certainly social democrats. The rationale behind it is very simple. It's far easier to control a few big corporations, than many smaller actors. Globalists and rich elites are likely to play along, as long as they get to keep their guilded cages. This stabilizes power and accumulates it in the hands of the few. The best way to keep it there is, incidentally, welfare. I think Caesar was truly onto something…

  14. You were talking about Franco avoiding to join International Fascist alliance. With that alliance, do you mean the Axis?
    Cause Franco wanted to join the war but Spain had a famine at the time (Because of fascism economic policy called autarky).

  15. Time Ghost History = Nina Hagen https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9xi4O4RvlnQ&list=RDMM9xi4O4RvlnQ&start_radio=1 Haaa!

  16. Truth and History is SO Important to the survival of Humanity.
    These are the weapons one needs to support Humanity for ALL peoples. Thank you time Ghost! 👍

  17. I am struggling with all of this history. Now that I have read Talmud and Kabbalah, and know the very real problems of both liberal and conservative Judaism; I struggle with thinking fascists had reason to be concerned. Fascism had its evil side. Nationalism was used for evil. Internationalism was used for evil. So who were the good guys? It seems to me they were all evil to varying degrees including our own FDR. The victims were the people who just wanted to live normal lives.

  18. Y o u T u b e is run by WhiteSupremacists. It refuses to take down TerroristSymbols, RacistPropaganda, and WhiteNationalistChannels. (Yet I've seen it take an account down for arguing against racists.) History is current affairs.

  19. This explanation was the best, by far, about the World was in the 1930s and the Fascism I have ever heard. There is a lot of misinformation on this subject. Please Keep the good Work Guys! greetings from Brazil

  20. I've been watching out of order but with this, I'm finally caught up on Between Two Wars! I'm really looking forward to future episodes so keep up the good work guys!

  21. What we have with Republicans now in the USA is an unfortunate Sorellian circumstance; where they cannot reconcile any responsibility for their crimes/mistakes going back to before Watergate. They went full 'stabbed in the back' too. Dismiss it or mobilize against it; you can't ignore it though.

  22. Populism? Where? No where in this story!
    Accusing Brexit voters?
    Well done video though, the Catholic connection to fascism is very visible.

  23. just like how when snow flakes call anyone that doesn't agree with them Nazi's, its laughable, great and effective way to describe how and what Fascist thinking ways are

  24. I love this video and I think more people should watch it to understand the ideology. And still I think fascism is the only way

  25. Socialism can be much more liberal sustem, but it allways came to a power during hard political and econimic conditions, and in that hard times , just not enough room for democracy

  26. I wouldn't say the expansionism part is necessary to qualify as fascism. It would be impossible to call anything fascism unless it happens in at least regionally powerful nations with the need and possibility of expanding. Spain was one such nation, it was fascist but expansionism was non existent

  27. The far-right IKL(Isänmaallinen kansanliike) translated as patriotic people's movement was a serious threat in the '30s in Finland. They even tried a coup d'etat and they kidnapped and extradited people they viewed as "communists" or pro soviet unionists to the soviet border. It got so out of hand when the IKL even kidnapped the former president of finland!

  28. 8:00 – That would certainly explain how authorities managed to "mistake" Dreyfus' glorified lip-tickler for Esterhazy's glorious Nietzschean mustache…

  29. The disturbing reality is that Paxton's definition, though modified to replace nationality with a range of other signifiers of identity, clearly applies today to the more radical elements of those who deem themselves the "Left" in the West today.

  30. The common misunderstanding is that nazis were on the right and communists on the left and so they must be opposites. But. Actually, they are cousins. Two different firms of collectivism, one focused on class, the other on race. The true opposite of both is liberal capitalism, if the sort that America was founded to be, where the ultimate power is in the hands of individuals not the collective.

  31. Drar Mr. Neidell, if you ever find yourzelf in Amsterdam, may I reccommend you visit the resistance myseum (in the same street as the zoo).
    I found theirs a fair and balanced exposition, beyond simply saying "Ooh, the nazis were so mean to 'us'", it also features explanation of the support for the NSB, and a review of the Jaoabese occupation omf thd Dufch colony Indonesia, and I loved the quote "Maybe the Jndonszuans felt the same about the Dutch as the Dutch felt about the Japanese occupation"

  32. This video brings out how distanced and obtuse our political terminology is today from their origins. Nobody is "Hitler" today. Nothing is "fascist" today. Antifa stupidly mixes elements of things they do not understand. Universities have become factories of glorious incompetence and the most expensive re-education camps in human history. We have become much dumber by proudly not knowing.

  33. Indie, many thanks for your informative video, but why don't you make one as informative about the REAL evil – communism that killed 120 million people worldwide? Fascism's just a conservative response to this horrific ideology & practice and is responsible for a far fewer deaths than its counterpart.

  34. The only thing I would add to this excellent video is a discussion of the American Immigration Act of 1924, which was essentially fascist and influenced Hitler.

  35. Your explanation of fascism and its ideological roots is one of the best, if not the best, I have seen on the subject. I especially liked the way you pointed out that Nazism and Fascism are similar, but not at all the same. You expressed some surprise at the socialist elements of Nazism, but I do not think that should be difficult to fathom. Nazis embraced a racially exclusive preexisting version of non-Marxist socialism – i.e., European socialism for the benefit of ethnic Germans (to the utter prejudice of all others) while rejecting the Marxist concept of class struggle. The Nazis said they didn't need a struggle to satisfy workers with whom they could deal and satisfy directly. That, if I am not mistaken, was explained in the Nazis' 25 points.

  36. Mein Kampf quotes Martin Luther and New testament.
    Rhineland Pogroms 9th century up until Holocaust..
    Facism is ultra egoism evil Often some tyrant makes use of some Demonized weak group as a scape goat for a countries failures…
    We know..

  37. Watching this series it is pretty hard to not draw parallels with today's situation. The whole mythic past thing…"make America great again", "fatherland Brazil" and many other slogans sure does seem as some sort of rebranding of…well, those things…

  38. Interesting as always. I would have liked to have seen where the other fascist and fascist-like movements directly impacted the right wing rabble in post-war Germany. A failed painter and veteran corporal isn't the profile of a deep political thinker, and yet Hitler rose to lead a new and toxic political ideology.

  39. Can someone tell me about the room Indy is sitting in… Is it Dutch are those Delft tiles on the thingy in the corner ? It is beautiful .

  40. Its scary how history repeats itself, you could just swap some countries around and modernize the leaders and this video would easily pass as an overview of world politics in 2019.

  41. This guy is awesome !! Almost all YouTube informative videos I have to crank the speed up to it at least one and a quarter sometimes more because the presenters speak so slowly.
    NOT HERE !!
    It's great you can actually have better retention with higher words per minute .

  42. Indy, your definition of fascism does not fit, because it generally covers Britain and the States of the first half of the 20th century, I believe. The definition of fascism should be more precise, and include a description of the economic model of fascism. It is also necessary to somehow distinguish German fascist imperialism from the imperialism of Britain and the States, and after 1939 – from the imperialism of the USSR.

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