English Vocabulary: How to talk about the economy

English Vocabulary: How to talk about the economy

Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I’m Adam.
Today’s lesson, we’re going to look at business English. We’re going to talk about the economy.
Now, we’re not going to get into too much detail. We’re not going to get into economic
theories, etc. What we’re going to look at is some vocabulary that will help you read
financial articles and newspapers, or online, or watch financial broadcasts on TV; CNN,
Money Matters, etc., things like that. So, we’re going to look
at all these words. We’re going to start with “GDP” because everything
somehow relates to “GDP – gross domestic product”. What is this? This is the total value, the
total monetary value of goods and services produced within a country. So everything that
the country produces from toilet paper to airplanes, and services from massage to heart
surgery, all the money that’s made from these goods and services together adds up to the
GDP. So, when we’re talking about GDP, we’re going to refer back to this expression when
we’re talking about some of these other words. So, first, let’s look at “fiscal”. “Fiscal”
basically means anything to do with money, anything to do with financial matters, especially
when we’re talking about taxes. Okay? So, when… The most common thing you’ll hear is
“fiscal year”. So when we’re talking about a company’s fiscal year, we’re talking about
it’s the beginning of its tax year to the end of its tax year. In some countries, everybody
matches this to January to December; in other countries, you’re allowed… Your fiscal year
starts when you start your business, and then one year later is the end of your fiscal year.
It’s easier to match it to the calendar year, but… A “quarter”. Now, you’re going to always hear
about prices, and stocks, and values going up or down over the last quarter or over the
last two quarters. What is a “quarter”? It’s basically three months. So if you’re talking
about the first quarter of the year, you’re talking about January, February, March. That’s
your first quarter. Your next three months, second quarter. Four
quarters makes one year. “Currency”. I think everybody knows this word,
but just in case, this is the money that is used in a country or a region. This is the
monetary value that is used for exchanges, trades, investments, etc. In Canada, we use
the Canadian dollar. In the U.S., they use the American dollar.
Euro in Europe, etc. A “budget”. A “budget” or “to budget”, it can
be a noun or a verb, means to make a plan on how to spend a certain amount of money.
So, for example, a government has this much money that they need to spend, or they have a
plan that they want to spend this much money. Now, they want to spend a million dollars.
I’m being very simple, here; I’m not going to get into big numbers. They need to spend a
million dollars to provide all the services that they need and to buy all the materials
that they need to import, etc. If they are running on a deficit, that means that they
need to spend more money than they have. They have to spend on things to bring in or to
run the country, but they don’t have. So if I need to spend a million dollars but I only
make the revenues of the country are only $900,000, then they will run
on $100,000 deficit. Okay? “Surplus” is the opposite. “Surplus” is when
the government or any company, you don’t have to apply this to a government, when you have
more money than you need for the budget. So if I need to spend a million dollars over
the next year, but I have a million and a half, then I have half a million dollar
surplus, which is always a good thing. “Inflation/deflation”. “Inflation” is when
prices of goods and services go up, but wages stay the same. So, basically, the purchase
power of the individual goes down. You have the same amount of money, but you can buy
fewer things or you can hire fewer people to do to have services for you. “Deflation”
is the opposite. That’s when prices go down, and the value of your dollar or your currency
goes up. Both situations are not good. A little bit of each is okay. Too much of each is bad
for the economy. People think deflation is good because prices go down, but then companies
don’t produce as much things because they’re not making as much money, so unemployment
goes up. So, you have to be careful with both of them. Inflation, prices go too high, people
can’t afford things. Deflation, companies don’t want to produce. “Stagnation”. Now, when we look at GDP, we
talk about growth or decline. Growth means that GDP is growing; decline means that GDP
is shrinking. Okay? “Stagnation” means that there’s hardly any movement, up or down. It
means everything stays more or less the same. 1%, etc. that’s still stagnation, if it carries
for a long time. A government wants to make sure that the economy is in growth, that the
economy grows. If it’s stagnant, it means it’s not moving, that’s
also bad for the economy. Next… Actually, you know what? I’m going
to jump here a little bit; I’ll come back to these guys. “Recession”. “Recession” is
different from “stagnation”. “Recession” means that the economy is in decline. Now, usually,
if the economy is in decline for two quarters, consecutive quarters, means one quarter after
another quarter, then people… The government or people, economists consider the economy to
be in recession. If the recession continues for a long time, maybe a couple of years,
some… In some places, it’s only one year or even less, then you have a depression,
which is a very big decline in the… In the economy, the GDP. Next, we’re going to talk about “credit”.
“Credit” is the ability to borrow money. Okay? So, for example, you need to buy a car, you can
buy a car and pay for it later. Why? Because the bank will give you the money to buy the
car, and then slowly you pay them back. If they give you $10,000 to buy the car, you
have a $10,000 debt. Notice I don’t pronounce the “b”: “debt”. Okay? “Debt” means owing.
You owe money to someone, usually the bank. A “credit rating” means how much or how little
the banks will give you. Now, of course, there’s also credits between credit ratings and credits
between countries, between companies, between banks and individuals, so this basically tells
you how much money you can borrow. If you have a very bad credit rating, it means nobody
will give you any money; you have bad credit. Next: “bubble”. You might hear this word often
used, especially when we’re talking about houses. We have a housing bubble. What does
this mean? It means that the prices of the houses, in this particular case, are growing,
growing, growing, growing. There’s no real reason that they should be growing. It’s not
like there’s suddenly a huge demand or the product is so much better, but prices are
growing and they’re growing quickly for no particular reason, and then suddenly they
pop or they burst. So a bubble grows, and then it bursts. So, people are always worried
when a bubble gets too big or lasts for too long that the burst is coming, and then people
start panicking, and the economy is affected very much. Lastly, when we’re talking like generally
about good economy or bad economy, we say: “boom” or “bust”. “Boom”, very good,
growing. “Bust”, bad, shrinking. Okay? “Boom”, up; “bust”, down. So, these are very general words that you
need to know. Again, you’re not going to go get your MBA with these words. Okay? But, you
can read articles, you can watch programs about financial matters and get a little bit
of better understanding. And the more of these words you learn, the easier it will be to
study business, economics, commerce, etc. If you have any questions,
please go to www.engvid.com, and in the comments section,
you can ask about these words. There’s also a quiz that you can
try out to test your knowledge. Don’t forget to subscribe
to my YouTube channel, and see you again soon. Bye-bye.


  1. Dear Adam, please try with science vocabulary. we need it to understand basic topic, but it is complicated to find good definitions. thanks

  2. Could you upload a video about bank terms, please? I work in a bank and it would help me a lot. Thank you Adam

  3. Thank you so much for your videos. It really helped me a lot understanding and knowing the proper words to be used in an english language. The way you explain and the way you pronounce every word very vividly is awesome. Thank you!

  4. The Language of Economics it's English but i don't know why our governement still teach us everything in Fucking French from Morocco if we want to growth we they must teach us English Full stop

  5. i see to much videos for learn inglish and you men are the only i like how explain! congrats!, please talk abou personality and how describe it

  6. your every video are so gorgeous so i want say you make a new video about gst also indian economy there after i will be watch your video sorry for suggestion

  7. Emery From  : Chicago  , Illinois : Thank you ,  professor  , You should be , in Hollywood  movies , you are a wonderful  teacher .We  love you in : America .

  8. Could you help me, please. Where can I find the full version of this text? Give me a link, please.

  9. Hi, I love all your lessons , I want to know if is possible to have the scripte of all your videos, especially this one (about economy)
    thank you.

  10. i just found this on net.and think he is very clear.i did business studies at school but did not find the teacher as clear as this one.

  11. Thank you very much for all your videos, they are excellent and, I’ve improved my English in many ways! You are the best!!!!

  12. Thank you! I'm kazakh,but I everything understand what u said. I'm a student of university and future financier. Thank you for your available lesson about basic economy words!

  13. Hello Adam… Thanks a lot. It was difficult understand my Economy teacher at University, but with your explanations (clear and simple) was different… Greatings to Toronto.

  14. The best history hi! Yes Afghanistan is in war with Bombardment and Sucide bomb every day killing civilians people.

  15. Very good explanation sir…pls keep continue the vocabulary session on most possible topics related to the day today life..depend on you time sir..I am from India..

  16. Thank you, teacher Adam! The content of this channel is priceless! I love and follow your videos…Thank you for being a professional and keep up the great work!

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