Congressional Leadership: Crash Course Government and Politics #8

Congressional Leadership: Crash Course Government and Politics #8

Hi, I’m Craig and this is Crash Course Government
and Politics, and today we’re going to examine the leadership structure of Congress! I know, pretty
exciting stuff! Now calm down, let me explain. [Theme Music] Are you ready to talk about Congressional
leadership? You better be. So, the Congressional leadership are the Congresspersons with titles like Majority Leader and Minority Whip, and they have a lot to do with
political parties, so we’re going to talk about what the political parties do in Congress as well.
Even if you don’t follow politics, you probably have heard of the name and titles, if not
the functions, of the various leaders. I’m going to need some help on this one, so…
Let’s go the Clone Zone! In the Clone Zone today I’ve got House Clone
and Senate Clone to help me explain Congressional leadership. House Clone in the house! Take
it away. The leader of the House of Representatives
is the Speaker of the House, and he or she is the third most powerful person in the country.
The speaker is always elected by whichever party is in the majority. These elections
take place every two years, because the whole House is elected every two years. That’s a
lot of elections! At the time of the shooting of the episode the Speaker of the House is John
Boehner from Ohio, known for his tan, tears, and tacos. Yeaah, he’s oddly really good at making tacos.
I had the barbecue pork at his house one time…. Yeah, I had the beef taco! He called it la lengua.
Interesting choice. Yeah. The speaker has two assistants to help
run the house. The Majority Whip has the primary task of counting votes on important pieces
of legislation, and making the party members vote along with their party. Whipping them
into line, I suppose. (whipping noise) The third in line is the House Majority Leader,
who helps the majority and probably does other stuff, but mainly he’s chosen by the speaker
because he’s popular with particular factions within the party. The Minority Party, that’s
the one with fewer members elected in a term, duh (scoffs), also has a Minority Leader,
and a Minority Whip, but no speaker. The Minority Leader is the de facto spokesperson for the minority
party in the House, which is why you often see him or her on TV, or on your phone, or, your iPad, or your pager.
I don’t think you can see it on your pager. Hey, that was some pretty good stuff
you said there House Clone. What’s the deal with the Senate, Senate Clone? Things are simpler over in the Senate because
we have only 100 august members and not the rabble of 435 to try to “manage.” The leader
of the Senate is the Majority Leader and he (so far it’s always been a he) is elected
by the members of his party, which by definition is the majority party, the one with 51 or
more members. There’s also a Minority Leader, which, like the Minority Leader in the House,
is the party’s spokesperson. The Vice President presides over the Senate sessions when he
doesn’t have anything better to do, even though it’s one of his few official constitutional
duties. When the veep is off at a funeral, or undermining the president with one of his
gaffes, the President pro tempore presides. The President pro tem is a largely ceremonial
role that is given to the most senior member of the majority party. Senior here means longest
serving, not necessarily oldest, although it can be the same thing. No one would want
to be a Congressional leader if there was no power involved, so it’s important to know
what powers these folks have, and how they exercise them. Also, I’m not supposed to do
this, but let’s go to the Thought Bubble. I love saying that! The primary way that leaders in both the House
and Senate exercise power is through committee assignments. By assigning certain members
to certain committees, the leadership can ensure that their views will be represented
on those committees. Also, leaders can reward members with good committee assignments, usually
ones that allow members to connect with their constituents, or stay in the public eye, or
punish wayward members with bad committee assignments. Like the committee for cleaning
the toilets or something. The Speaker of the House is especially powerful in his role assigning
Congressmen to committees. Congressional leaders shape the agenda of
Congress, having a huge say in which issues get discussed and how that discussion takes
place. The Speaker is very influential here, although how debate happens in the House is
actually decided by the House Rules Committee, which makes this a rather powerful committee
to be on. The Senate doesn’t have a rules committee, so there’s no rules! Aw, yeah!
There’s rules. The body as a whole decides how long debate will go on, and whether amendments
will be allowed, but the Majority Leader, if he can control his party, still has a lot
of say in what issues will get discussed. Agenda setting is often a negative power,
which means that it is exercised by keeping items off the agenda rather than putting them
on. It’s much easier to keep something from being debated at all than to manage the debate
once it’s started, and it’s also rather difficult for the media to discuss an issue that’s never
brought up, no matter how much the public might ask, “But why don’t you talk about this thing that
matters a lot to me?” Thanks, Thought Bubble. Speaking of the media, Congressional leaders
can also wield power because they have greater access to the press and especially TV. That’s the
thing people used to watch. Instead of YouTube. This is largely a matter of efficiency. Media
outlets have only so many reporters, and they aren’t going to waste resources on the first-term
Congressman from some district in upstate New York. No one even goes to upstate New
York. Is there anyone in upstate New York? Has anyone ever gone to upstate New York? When the Speaker calls a press conference reporters
show up, and the Majority Leader can usually get on the Sunday talk shows if he wants. Media access
is a pretty handy way to set an agenda for the public. Finally, Congressional leaders exercise a
lot of power through their ability to raise money and to funnel it into their colleague’s
campaign. I want colleagues like that. Each House of Congress has a special campaign committee
and whoever chairs it has the ability to shift campaign funds to the race that needs it most,
or to the Congressperson he or she most wants to influence. The official leadership has
little trouble raising money since donors want to give to proven winners who have a
lot of power, and get the most bang for their buck. Since the leaders usually win their
races easily, this is more true in the House than the Senate. They frequently have extra
campaign money to give. Often the donations are given to political action committees, or PACs,
which we’ll talk about in another episode. We’re going to spend a lot of time talking
about political parties, and probably having parties of our own in later episodes, especially
their role in elections, but they are really important once Congress is in office too.
One way that parties matter is incredibly obvious if you stop to think about it. It’s
contained in the phrase “majority rules.” This is especially true in the House, where
the majority party chooses the Speaker, but it’s also the case in the Senate. This is
why ultimately political parties organize and raise so much money to win elections: if one of the
parties controls both houses and the presidency, as the Democrats did in 2008 through 2009, that
party is much more likely to actually get things done. The party that’s the majority in each house
is also the majority on all of that house’s committees, or at least the important ones,
and, as we saw in the last episode, committees are where most of the legislative work in
Congress gets done. Gets did. As you probably figured out, the majority party chooses the
committee chairs, too, so it’s really got a lock on that sweet legislative agenda. Parties
also can make Congress more efficient by providing a framework for cooperation. The party provides
a common set of values, so a Republican from Florida and one from Wyoming will have something
in common, even if their constituents don’t. These common values can be
the basis of legislation. Sometimes. But sometimes — [punches eagle]
— that happens. Political parties also provide discipline
in the process. When a party is more unified it’s easier for the leader to set an agenda and get
the membership to stick to it. Right? Unified. Lack of party unity can make it difficult
for the leadership. In 2011 a large group of very conservative newbie Congressmen associated
with the Tea Party Movement made it difficult for Speaker Boehner to put forward an agenda. The Tea Party caucus felt Boehner compromised
too much with the Democrats, even though his agenda was, by some standards, pretty conservative.
As a result, Congress wasn’t able to get much done, except make itself unpopular. So, if you combine all this with the stuff
we learned about Congressional committees, you should have a pretty good understanding
of how Congress actually works. Yay! Understanding! As this course progresses and you fall in
love with politics, and myself, be on the lookout for how the leadership sets the agenda
and pay attention to what issues might be floating around that aren’t getting discussed
in Congress. Understanding who the Congressional leaders
are, and knowing their motivations, can give you a sense of why things do and don’t get
done by the government. And, if you’re lucky, you live in a district represented by a member
of leadership. In that case, the person you vote for will be in the news all the time,
which is kind of satisfying, I guess. Yeah, I voted for that guy! Yeah! And now
he’s on the TV! Yeah! Thanks for watching. We’ll see you next week.
What do you think, can we be unified? Can we get things done?
We can’t. Crash Course Government and Politics is produced
in association with PBS Digital Studios. Support for Crash Course US Government comes from
Voqal. Voqal supports non-profits that use technology and media to advance social equity.
Learn more about their mission and initiatives at Crash Course was made by all
of these nice people. Thanks for watching. Someday, maybe the eagle and I will get along. Not today. Not today.


  1. People go to Saratoga, but other than that no one does anything in Upstate New York other than leave Upstate New York

  2. Speaking as a native Upstate New Yorker, it is so much different from NYC and Long Island, it might as well be a different state altogether. And yes, there are a lot of us up here.

  3. It's nothing against Craig, but I am just not retaining anything from this course. I learned a lot from World History, U.S. History, and Economics, but for some reason I'm not able to remember anything from these videos :/

  4. I'm confused on how chairs are selected. I heard that they are elected but then I hear the leaders of the houses choose them.

  5. Ok I have to vent for a moment. I work for Apple, I have to deal with Apple stuff 10 hours a day, 4 days a week, so when I'm relaxing on my off time, CAN I GET A BREAK FROM APPLE & NOT HAVE TO SEE ALL THESE DANG IPHONE 7 ADS? @_X

    Ok I feel better now.

  6. I'm from Ogdensburg. 360 miles north of New York City. For most people anything north of the Catskills is northern New York.

  7. I'm super late to this course, but the learning I'm experiencing!!!! So informative. Of course, being Australian, I probably should focus on our government, but the more I watch this course, the more I realise how good Australia's political system is. Great course!

  8. Its ridiculous how they have all the power. The whole point of the Constitution was so the people possessed the power. We don't. Thats why most people are upset about how are government is treating us and the country. We do have power, we just need to voice what we want and need.

  9. "… media will not waster resources on a first term congressman from some district in New York"
    Oh Craig, if you only knew.

  10. Why does it take me so long to google long wondered about questions? Seems I forget about the power of the internet. And thank you PBS.

  11. I hate the idea of the congressional leaders being ones that have been there the longest. I know it still requires a vote but without term limits, the most senior senator or house rep is also the most likely to be corrupt, mentally unfit, as we've seen with Pelosi, Leahy. Their time has long come and gone.

  12. Eight videos into this Crash Course series and a lot of the comments are about passing AP class exams. I’m over here, out of school and not in college, just watching this series because I enjoy learning.

  13. 2:14 I thought the leader of the Senate is the Vice President, aren’t Vice Presidents considered the “President of the Senate?”

  14. World leaders will one day have a decision to make and the job will intimately pass the flag onto someone in the future who has charge of world sources. Then they will be in charge of possible peace of the world.

  15. "I voted for that guy yeah! and now he's on the T.V yeah!" except for Republicans in Massachusetts I feel bad for all three of us

  16. Well I'm learning more about government and, this being 2019, I'm learning more about how we wound up in this Trainwreck.

  17. Why use the Democrats as an example of a supermajority? The Republicans had a supermajority for eight years before the 2008 recession. Also the Democrats supermajority was from 2009 until 2011. January 3rd 2009 to be exact.

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