BBC: Cataluña, A region apart (1979)

BBC: Cataluña, A region apart (1979)


Spanish Realities Cataluña, A Region Apart In 1977, the people of Cataluña celebrated the traditional day of Catalan Solidarity. It was the first time they had been able to do so since Franco came to part in the 30s. One and half million Catalans came into the streets of Barcelona to assert their wish for autonomy It was hardly an extremist minority. Most Catalans feel deeply their right to some form of self-government And they have expressed this feeling many times in their past In 1931, Cataluña declared itself an independent republic. It set up its own government – the Generalitat and the statute for autonomy was drawn up. The new republican government in Madrid approved the statute the following year. Under its President Macià, Cataluña was officially autonomous. It was not to last long. The civil war. Barcelona was one of the last strongholds of resistance to Franco. But in January 1939, it too fell to the nationalists. The siege of Barcelona was effectively the end of the civil war. Thousands of Catalans fled to France. In the months that followed, many Catalans, including the Prime Minister, were shot. Under Franco, there followed a rigorous and systematic repression of everything that was Catalan. It was not the first time a Spanish ruler had come into conflict with Cataluña In 1640, Cataluña declared itself a republic under French protection It took the Spanish King 19 years to force Cataluña into submission In the 18th century, Cataluña again resisted the Spanish siding with Spain’s enemy the Hapsburgs, in return for their support of Catalan Autonomy. 40,000 French and Castilian troops laid siege to Barcelona for 13 months before it gave in. In the 19th century, Catalan uprisings against the central powers of Spain were sparked off a number of times. In 1842, Barcelona took up arms against the dictatorial regent General Espartero who retaliated from the heights of the fortress of Montjuïc, bombarding the city into submission. And in 1868, Catalans rebelled against the monarchy burning portraits of Queen Isabella II. If Cataluña was not always the only region to rebel it does have a long standing tradition of resistance to the central powers of Spain Senator Josep Benet, a historian and leading Catalan politician explains why: Well, there are some very obvious reasons… is that Catalonia is a people with a language, with a historical tradition, with a different culture, totally different from the peoples
that occupies the centre of the peninsula and that control the politics of the Spanish state. They are two different peoples. In what ways was Catalonia defined as a nation? Right. According to French historian, the eminent historian French, Pierre Vilar, Catalonia is one of the earliest medieval peoples to display aspects of the modern ‘nation-state’. It was a… a people with strong national feeling. that early In the Middle Ages adopted structures very close to what would become the modern state. Cataluña, one of the earliest forerunners of the nation-state in Europe with its own particular language, culture and history. The closeness of Cataluña to the rest of Europe has been largely responsible for these differences. In the 8th century, the Muslims dominated most of Spain and part of France. But their influence on the language and culture of Cataluña was less than almost anywhere else in the peninsula because they only stayed for 90 years. In 801, the Franks under Charlemagne, drove the Muslims back out of northern Spain For the next two centuries, Cataluña was part of the Frankish Kingdom. While the rest of Spain looked south to the Arab world, Cataluña looked north to Europe. It was now that the Catalan Language was born. Spoken on both sides of the Pyrennees It was closer to the Latin dialects of southern France than to those of the peninsula. With the decline of the Frankish empire, at the end of the 10th century, Cataluña became independent. But it never lost its close ties with Europe Cataluña shared in the European movement of Romanesque art in the 11th and 12th centuries And contributed a highly individual style of its own. Catalan Romanesque art was a rich and vital expression of Cataluña’s emerging identity. Politically as well as culturally, Cataluña was developing its own identity From the time of its earliest independent rulers Cataluña began to evolve a sophisticated form of government based around the court in Barcelona. The King ruled by the consent of the court and was bound to observe all statutes and laws they had agreed. He was one of the earliest forerunners of the constitutional monarch. With the creation of the Generalitat this system was formalised. The Generalitat was the earliest Catalan parliament and its function was to approve or disapprove of measures proposed by the King. The whole feudal system in Cataluña was sophisticated and nothing else like existed in Spain. Becoming stronger and more stable, Cataluña began to assert itself abroad. Under James I of Cataluña in the 13th century, Mallorca then Valencia were conquered. And in the 14th century, Sicily and Sardinia. And later, Naples. Cataluña’s power was not just military. It became the most important trading state in the Mediterranean, with Barcelona as its commercial centre and port. The Gothic Quarter of the city contains buildings which reflect its wealth at this time. In the Middle Ages, Barcelona was one of the finest and richest cities in Europe. But Cataluña’s strength and prosperity were not to last. In the 15th century, its population was decimated by a plague. And it lost its military and commercial power in the Mediterranean to the Turks. Under Ferdinand and Isabella, Castille became the most important power in the world because of its discovery of America. But despite Castille’s dominance in Spain from then on, it never properly assimilated Cataluña. Why not? With the discovery of the Americas, the discoveries in the Americas became the property of the Crown of Castille, excluding Catalonia. The Crown of Castile was formed by a number of states, including naturally, Catalonia and Castille reserved for itself the exclusive control over trade with the Americas. This meant that, during the following centuries, Catalans could not move to the Americas, people could not go to America like so many people from other Spanish territories moved to America. Moreover, Catalonia, had lost practically all the Mediterranean trade largely due to the dominance of the Turks. It was a people that found it necessary to look inward. And thus, it had to find ways of life that worked internally. There are strong historical grounds for the Catalans’ claim to some form of autonomy. And this feeling is not restricted to any political party or social class. Catalans have a sense of solidarity as a people with characteristics that make them different from other Spaniards. How do they see themselves? What is the Catalan character? Quiet, peaceful, hardworking. A Catalan is honest, friendly, pleasant, hardworking, direct. Traditionally, our character was maybe … a bit closed with, uh, a strong spirit for commerce and above all, progressive say, more like Europe than to the rest of the Iberian Peninsula. Are you a Catalanist? Yes, sir. Are you a Catalanist? No. Not at all! Are you a Catalanist? Well, yes, sir. Why? Well, I’m… I do not know, I can not say… I feel
Catalan… and I like … my language. Eh … well, I’m a Catalanist I feel Catalan. I think that Catalonia is a nation, that it must be respected as such and, after so many years of having been
suppressed, it has the right and the duty to become and be treated as a nation. Are you a Catalanist? Well, yes. Why? Because that’s how I feel. I believe in the future of … Catalonia. I believe in the history that we’ve gone through. Eh… I have become aware of the myriad of injustices that we have suffered and … I believe in the resurgence of the country. A sense of past history is important to Catalanist feelings, but the most important thing is the sharing of a common language. 70% of population speak Catalan, and for 50%, it is their first language. Under Franco, people were fined on the spot for speaking it in public. Today, it is the language of the street once more both spoken and written. We want green spaces! Save the wetlands. No, I’m all set. OK, if it doesn’t come out well, or whatever, you can bring it back. No questions asked. – I can exchange it?
– Yes, yes, yes, yes. The use of Catalan is not confined
to any social class or any situation. [Catalan-speaking merchant] Forty, and the pears make 130. [Customer] 130. Are you sure you added right?
[Merchant] 130 in total, yes, ma’am. [Customer] I don’t want the cauliflower.
[Merchant] OK, OK. [Customer] It’s too big.
[Merchant] I see, too big, no problem. Catalan is the language of the local market. And of the expensive shop. [Catalan-speaking Customer] Will they fit?
[Catalan-speaking merchant] Yes, yes, perfectly. And you can use an extension rod if you need to. [Customer] Excellent, does that seem good to you?
[Customer’s friend] I think so, I like it. [Customer] How much will it be, more or less? [Merchant] Around 35,700 pesetas, or so. Catalan is the now the official language for regional matters are concerned, in government administration and in the state-run radio and television system. [In Catalan] Good afternoon, Ladies and Gentlemen,
undoubtedly, the most important news of the day is the meeting held up until a few moments ago
In the Hall of the Hundred in the City Hall with the members of the Assembly of Catalan parliamentarians. There was also a meeting today by the executive council of the Generalitat [Catalan Government] [Catalan-speaking technician] Camera one, camera two. Bachs. Camera two on Bachs. [Catalan speaker] We can also point out the important changes to the business organization chart [Spanish speaking technician] We’re shifting to Bachs? With the revival of the Catalan language has come a resurgence of Catalan culture. But memories of repression linger on for painters like Tàpies and Guinovart. Today, many of Spain’s most important artists are Catalan The great Catalan artist Joan Miró designed this record cover. Cataluña produces many of Spain’s best popular musicians. Catalan theatre is the most active in Spain. Theatre companies provide popular as well as serious entertainment at the yearly Barcelona Festival. The liveliness of Catalan culture is a powerful factor in Catalans’ feelings of solidarity and uniqueness. Cataluña has always been one of the most prosperous regions of Spain. And economic factors have considerably strengthened its desire for autonomy. In the 18th century Cataluña was the first part of Spain to become industrialized. And this in itself created tensions with the government in Madrid. [Historian Benet; Spanish] This industrialization provoked a further differenciation between the Catalan people and the Castillian people which was now the dominant power in the state. In Catalonia it wasn’t just that a different language was spoken or that there was a different culture but also that what we call an industrial society was formed there. In Catalonia, an industrial bourgeosie appeared, and in Catalonia, there was also a working class with all of the new problems that were yet unknown in the rest of the Spanish state. They were not known in the center. And this differentiated them, made one people so different from the others. The differences became even more pronounced with industrialization. The new industrial working class felt that the Spanish government was so remote it could never understand their problems. The workers reacted by rejecting the whole political system. The left-wing movement that was born had strong anarchist tendencies. And this radical tradition was an important factor in Cataluña’s hostility to central power during the next hundred years. But the government was not any more aware of the interests of the new middle class. [historian Benet, in Spanish] This provoked a series of very important problems in the Spanish state— problems, that can be understood if we take into account that Catalonia was the only country in Europe that underwent the industrial revolution, but whose bourgeousie that was born of the industrial revolution, this industrial bourgeousie was the only one in all of Europe that never came to power. Instead it was marginalised, and continues to be marginalised from power. So the industrialists disliked the central government just as much as their workers did. They supported and encouraged the autonomy movement even if mostly for reasons of economic self-interest. Most industrialists in Cataluña today still support some form of autonomy. Corberó is a large manufacturer of domestic electrical appliances. Its vice president is a strong supporter of autonomy. In what ways does Pedro Corberó think Cataluña has suffered under a centralised regime? [P.Corberó, in Spanish] I think that it has suffered in two ways: economically and politically. Economically, the Catalan country has been very conditioned by the economic power of the Spanish state. Because here in Catalonia, those institutions weren’t there and there wasn’t this mentality of… or the strong base of powerful financial firms who could give this support. In the political field, it’s because all of the pertinent decisions that is pertinent to the business world, and specifically to the Catalan business world. were made, and are made, in Madrid, without Catalan participation. The Catalan industrialist wants autonomy partly because it makes for more efficient business, and partly because he wants Cataluña to benefit more directly from its own profits. [P.Corberó, in Spanish] Principally, the benefits would be related to a whole gamut of services not specfically tied to a given company. That’s it, principally. Undoubtedly, in the Catalan country we’re worried because we know that only a third of of what Catalonia gives to the Spanish state comes back to Catalonia. This is what makes us worry because we really already have the results of a lack of a whole series of services, and that’s what keeps us from properly structuring the country. If the Catalan industrialist has always supported autonomy, today’s workers feel differently. Most of them are non-Catalan. In Corberó’s factory as many as 80%. They come to Cataluña from poorer parts of Spain for a job and better pay. These workers are outsiders in a community which is in the process of asserting its differences from others. Integration is a problem
which autonomy can only make more difficult. In the industrial zone around Barcelona, the communities are largely non-Catalan. The “Barrio Seat” is where the workers of the SEAT car factory live in housing provided by the company. It’s a very closed community with its own shops, bars, social facilities and its own school. 85% of the SEAT workers come from other parts of Spain, mostly the south. And few of them speak any Catalan. They are known as immigrants and the problems of integration for them are considerable. The Catalan headmistress of a local school came to work in this district because she was concerned about these problems. Maria Teresa Codina: [Spanish] I believe that language is the most visible problem and the one that’s most obvious. But the underlying problems are of adaptation, social problems above all. It’s the problem of subsistence, to figuring out how they’re going to earn a living how to get along with others, and how to get to, get access to, and rise to better situations. The predominance of non-Catalan workers in the factories, creates a kind of class distinction. Spanish is the language of the shop floor Catalan the language of the boardroom. But the managers are aware of how divisive this is, and insist on Spanish as the official language of the factory. But it’s still a powerful barrier between worker and employer. [Catalan teacher speaks] Louder, I can’t hear you. [Child, in Spanish] No
[Teacher, in Catalan] No, what? [Child in Spanish] that you don’t sit down
(NB: sentar-se in Catalan means to hear, sentarse in Spanish means to sit down) [Teacher] No, man, I don’t sit down. What time do you get up? So learning the language is an important first step in integration. The teaching of Catalan in all schools began in 1978. It should make integration for second generation immigrants much easier than for their parents. As Señora Codina explains: [Spanish] The immigrant thinks, one, that they’re changing by accepting a culture, and taking on that culture, that they’re acquiring the culture of the community that has received them, that is, Catalonia. But then, what happens is that they stop building on their own culture. They leave behind the traditions that they had, that belonged to them, that gave them security. which gave them their identity, and very often they ended up not having one thing or the other. The assertion of Catalan autonomy may have aggravated problems of integration. But then the association of different regions into one Spanish nation has always been a problem. In the past, the answer has frequently been dictatorship. Now other solutions are possible. [Benet, in Spanish] We believe that Spain, a Spanish state, with a federalist structure would be the best way to resolve the problems between the different peoples that make up the Spanish state. A federation that we can imagine open even to Portugal so that all the peoples on the peninsula would be included. And that we also see this as a step towards a united Europe that we would like to see happen one day. A Europe that would be an authentic federation of peoples. Now, however, we are realistic, and for the moment, for a series of reasons, this federal state is not yet possible in Spain. And for that reason, we accept this State structured with “autonomies” that is how the current Spanish situation can be defined. A single unitary state, but that is compatible with the autonomy of all of the peoples that make up the Spanish state. [Voices, in Catalan] We want, yes, yes, freedom, amnesty, we want, yes, yes freedom, amnesty, we want, yes, yes [Catalan National Anthem, “Els Segadors”] These subtitles were transcribed, timed and translated not by Google’s bots but by interested human volunteers, like you, using the online collaboration tools at
www.amara.org

100 comments

  1. Aquí, el Sr. Valar Morghulis amb el seu escut fatxenda que diu que un reportatge de la BBC (la cadena més prestigiosa del món) está plena de mentides i que ell té raó. El feixisme espanyol i la manipulació histórica no té límits, i per rematar:"gracias a Franco que los trató tan bien" … 

  2. Deu meu!! els que em perdut pel camí!! i els que com jo, ens em ficat més tart en la lluita de la llibertat.
    Encara així, la cosa no ha canviat gaire, ara per sort, sembla que hi ha un raig de llum en la foscor!
    VISCA CATALUNYA!!!

  3. Menuda mierda de documental, yo creía que la bbc era mas seria. Que pena, y habrá gente que se crea las chorradas que dice este programa! Cuanta gente inculta

  4. Arthur Mas and his partners want to build your own snack bar, think debt up to their eyeballs to finance their projects Herodians (Continued from Herod wanted to create the most impressive city in the world, then set it on fire). There is an old saying "Divide and rule" there are international dark forces want to divide Spain, Catalonia would be a small country very easy to handle. Another saying "To begin to eat the cake must be divided," there are many mouths outside Spain who want a bite to this country, so support underhand Mas and its partners. How many companies are going to stay in Catalonia after independence? when the rest of Spain boycott their products and do not buy anything coming from Catalonia?; that's what you hate, which generates more hatred and that's what Arthur Mas is creating a spiral of hatred without precedents, Catalonia and Spain take centuries together and not let yourselves be brainwashed by those who want their own territory for gain. The independence of Catalonia end dividing Catalonia itself.

  5. Lo más curioso de éste documental de la BBC es que no se habla, para nada del importante papel que jugó el Reino Unido al abandonar a los catalanes a su suerte, después de hacerse comprometido en su defensa, y pese a reclamar la Reina de Inglaterra que se tuviera respeto con los catalanes Felipe V contestó: "Por esos canallas, esos sinvergüenzas, el rey no otorgará jamás sus privilegios, pues no sería rey si lo hiciera, y esperamos que la reina [de Inglaterra] no nos los quiera exigir. […] Sabemos que la paz os es tan necesaria como a nosotros y no la querréis romper por una bagatela." Después se firmó el Tratado de Utrech (1713) que nos arrebató la Catalunya Nord . Uno de los hechos más lamentables de nuestra historia y que desde hace 300 años estamos pagando sus consecuencias. Ver: http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caso_de_los_catalanes

  6. Catalonia has never been independent. It is not a colony, neither is it a territory subjected by right of conquest, nor a historic nation stifled by an authoritarian regime. Catalonia contributed decisively to the making of Spain. It did so five centuries ago when Aragón, of which Catalonia was an essential part, united with Castile. And it did so again in 1978, when Catalans voted massively – with 91 per cent support – for the new democratic constitution. 
    End of story.

  7. lo que más os jode es que no sea un documental en catalán sino que provenga de la BBC misma ya no es la historia que contamos los catalanes sino lo que ven los extranjeros sobre nosotros y ahora ya me podeis ladrar si quereis

  8. Como tergiversan la historia los españolistas en este foro!. En lugar de ello, que trabajen para levantar su decrépito país y no confíen tanto en lo que expolian a otros territorios de la península. El reino de España ha vivido siempre de sus colonias y Cataluña ha sido tratada como una colonia por España desde siglos dado que los españoles se dan cuenta de que somos un pueblo distinto, con diferente cultura, idiosincrasia, idioma y modo de hacer, lo cual les subleva. Conste que hablo de catalanes, no de españoles que viven en Cataluña y no se han integrado a los cuales se les llama cariñosamente, colonos.

  9. This is pure manipulation. Historical facts are manipulated or are complete it fake. I really doubt this video has been made by BBC. This is just propaganda made by independentist back in the 70s. This video promotos hatred against Spain. E una vergogna!

  10. Beatiful, I didn't know this video. After what we saw last 11-9 in Barcelona I'm pretty confident that the Catalan people will get finally the chance and reclaim their right to vote. Thank you very much for this informative and nice video. greetings from Germany!

  11. Un reportaje que tendría que ser de obligada visión en España. Tienen que venir de fuera para explicar la identidad de Catalunya y, además, la comprenden. En España aún hoy no entienden nada, porque para empezar niegan nuestra historia, nuestra identidad y nuestra nación.

  12. pero esto qué mierda de "documental es"? Cataluña independiente tocate los pies… Jaime I de Aragón rey de cataluña, no? lo que hay que leer xD

  13. la industrialización diferenció más a Cataluña. jajajajja. no sería al revés,fue la industrialización lo que la diferenció? Esto es como los vascos, dicen que son diferentes, y resulta que medio idioma español viene del vasco.
    Tienen más identidad porque tenían medios para difundirla, se demuestra con Andalucía, que siendo analfabeta durante un largo período, siguió manteniendo cultura e identidad, e historia durante siglos, y si se hubiera escrito un poco más, veríamos que el andaluz es el idioma que más se habla, pues la s en Sudamérica es andaluza, además de que la economización del idioma tiende al ahorrar letras en las palabras…estos burgueses catalanes hicieron muy bien su trabajo en el pasado, y ahora parece que son un pueblo aparte…eso es no saber historia de los pueblos en España.

  14. How is it possible that this1979 documentary is still relevant? Spain, and Europe as a whole has a problem with recognizing minorities. Maybe we should quit the fallacy of nation states and see our continent as what it is, a continent of regions that are interconnected, with overlapping similarities.

  15. Hey, Spanish crooks, does it hurt to see a trademark international TV channel like the BBC talking about us? Oh, It is not the perfidious-evil-bad-nationalists-that-want-to-broke-spain.

    And meanwhile, in Spain, you keep bubbling against us, insulting our language, our culture, and our traditions.

    Now, it may not everything be like we desire, but your attitude of boycotting our national personality and repressing us more blatantly and bigotedly each time has not worked.

    Fuck Spain and France and Italy 🙂

  16. @Manuel Gil Parra, we already export most of our goods outside Spain 😉 And the rest of the world will not boycott a new state just because the fact you try to disprestige our image internationally

    @Vivencio Jodar  LEARN TO SPELL PROPERLY YOUR FUCKING LANGUAGE!

  17. La cultura catalana no es completamente distinta a la del resto de España, para nada…
    Es una cultura con raíces hispanovisigodas, como el resto de España, es cierto que tuvo influencia occitana, y los visigodos de septimania trajeron el occitano allí, pero nunca se tuvo conciencia de pertenecer al Imperio Carolingio culturalmente… (la casa de Barcelona era de origen visigodo) Y tras unirse a Aragón, el principado de Cataluña miró a la Reconquista y el Mediterráneo (no a europa como dice este vídeo… sólo hay que ver donde colocan el area lingüistico vascuence en el mapa para ver lo falso que es el video…). Se regía el principado por Fueros, leyes de origen romano y visigodo, como cualquier otra España de entonces, y se tuvo una enorme lealtad a la corona y el rey, como se demostró en la Guerra de sucesión y los segadores.
    La identificación con España siempre ha estado presente, como lo demuestran la guerra de independencia y de marruecos.
    el catalanismo en su origen no fue separatista sino hispanista, y el carlismo fue el movimiento que más fuerza tenía entre el pueblo llano, un movimiento para nada separatista.
    En la guerra civil, la única unidad militar organizada fue el tercio de requetes de la virgen de Montserrat en el bando nacional…
    En fin, todos falacias lo del video.

  18. Cataluña es parte de España  así como  las Malvinas lo son de Argentina ,….. viva España y Argentina !! …. las lacras inglesas que devuelvan Gibraltar a España

  19. Más que de la BBC, parece un documental de CiU. Se limita a repetir los mitos y mentiras del nacionalismo catalán. Qué vergüenza.

  20. My surname is Cataline.This video is about my people how cool. here is my history.The surname of CATALANO is a Spanish regional name for someone from CATALONIA (Spanish CATALUNA) which was so called from a pre-Roman tribal name, which is of unknown origin and meaning. The name is also spelt CATALA, CATALAO, CATHALAN, KATALAN, KATALONI, CATALANOTTI, CATALINE and CATILINA. In the 8th century, Spain fell under the control of the Moors, and this influence, which lasted into the 12th century, has also left its mark on Hispanic surnames. A few names are based directly on Arabic personal names. The majority of Spanish occupational and nickname surnames, however, are based on ordinary Spanish derivatives. In Spain identifying patronymics are to be found as early as the mid-9th century, but these changed with each generation, and hereditary surnames seem to have come in slightly later in Spain than in England and France. As well as the names of the traditional major saints of the Christian Church, many of the most common Spanish surnames are derived from personal names of Germanic origin. For the most part these names are characteristically Hispanic. They derive from the language of the Visigoths, who controlled Spain between the mid-5th and early 8th centuries. Lucius Sergius CATILINA (108-62 BC) was the Roman conspirator, born of an impoverished family, He was elected praetor in 68, and the next year governor of Africa, but was disqualified from the consulship in 66 on charges of maladministration. Disappointed and crippled by debt, he entered into a conspiracy with other Roman nobles. After a desperate battle he was defeated and slain. It was not until the 10th century that modern hereditary surnames first developed, and the use of fixed names spread, first to France, and then England, then to Germany and all of Europe. In these parts of Europe, the individual man was becoming more important, commerce was increasing and the exact identification of each man was becoming a necessity. Even today however, the Church does not recognise surnames. Baptisms and marriages are performed through use of the Christian name alone. Thus hereditary names as we know them today developed gradually during the 11th to the 15th century in the various European countries.

  21. esto es lo que pasa cuando unos guiris solo toman como fuentes los que les vienen de la Generalitat… JAIME I REY DE CATALUNYA JAJAJJAJ

  22. @9:29……PURA MENTIRA !! Mis antepasados vinieron a Cuba de Barcelona,Gerona y tengo ramos familiares de Mallorca y fueron a Cuba en los 1700 !!!  Ese viejo está hablando mierda !!!! Omitiendo lo que le conviene .Los catalanes eran los mercaderes e intelectuales en Cuba y en cada lugar del imperio español que fueran !!!

  23. Carlomagno fundo CATLUÑA en territorio MUSULMAN con el nombre : Marca de los GODOS y era parte del LANGEDOC frances ,region FRANCESA donde estaban concentradas las etnias minoritarias de FRANCIA : GODOS ,Alanos ,Cartageneses y Gitanos. Cuando se independizaron de FRANCIA ,pasaron a llamarse Marca de HISPANIA .Cuando se integraron a ESPAÑA(eran FRANCESES) ,los españoles los llamaban "El CONDADO de BARCElona(BARCArola por el apellido de (Labarca)ANIBAL) ,el nombre CATALUÑA viene de CATalonicus ,nombre dado por los navegantes genoveses(Pisa) ,a los florecientes MERCADERES del Meditarraneo provenientes de BARCElona .

  24. Los CATALANES como todos los pueblos SOMETIDOS ¡ No tienen historia ! .Por lo tanto sus raices hay que buscarlas en su IDIOMA .A mi juicio el idioma viene de CARTAGO ,por su parecido al Maltés (ultimo reducto del desaparecido idioma cartagenés). Tengan por favor en consideracion que luego de la derrota de ANIBAL ,los CARTAGENESES volvieron a surgir para volver a ser DESTRUIDOS por ROMA sin haber hecho absolutamente nada .Tambien si se reemplaza la ZH = T en el nombre de Kazharia queda CATaria (ex-ALANIA).
    NUESTRA RAZA se independizo en el CAUCASO (de RUSIA) y en PORTUGAL obtuvo su independencia gracias al apoyo de la corona BRITANICA. ¿ Podra suceder lo mismo con CATALUÑA ? .Pienso como Jordi É. : que a Cataluña le ha ido mejor cuando NO es INDEPENDIENTE.
    Només pel fet de parlar un altre idioma, s'ha de pagar un preu molt alt .Amb la bogeria de la independència es corre el perill de perdre tot el que s'ha aconseguit!

  25. El nombre CATalonicus fue dado por los NAVEGANTES genoveses de la ciudad de PISA en el siglo 12 .Este nombre se impuso en todos los paises visitados por los GENOVESES y los BARCEloneses quienes lo adoptaron sin saber su significado : CAT = CATaros (CAzharia ,CArTago) ,ALONICUS = ALANOS . ¿ Quienes fueron los ALANOS de CARTAGO que el año 455 desenbarcaron en PISA antes de destruir ROMA ?
    La història torna a repetir ANIBAL, Genseric .Sempre hem acabat desastrosament humiliats !!!

  26. Creo que el orígen del problema es que no dejaron a Catalunia participar del botín robado a las Americas, como bien dice el cara de caballo en el video. A protestar a la Torre del Oro !!

  27. Efectivamente en Cataluña, hay muchos catalanes que dicen que son un pueblo.

    Fuera de Cataluña hay muchísimas personas que opinan que son varias aldeas,

  28. cuantos catedraticos de historia por aqui y luego votan a patanes en el gobierno de madrid sin estudios, a manifestarse por gran hermano

  29. i basically hate barcelona FC because of my personal bias. but i have a new kind of respect for catalonia people and probably for barcelona FC.

  30. BBC mainstream media bullshit! – Catalonia has never been an independent kingdom nor anything near like Scotland. People living in Catalonia have been Spaniards since Spain came into existence. It's their politicians, who, driven by their very private economic interests have made up a nazi like story about "genetic" and "racial" differences, indoctrinating their children for over 40 years with that bizarre story, so that young people believe, they actually come from Mars, and that they are heavily oppressed by "The Spaniards", ignoring completely the fact that they themselves are "The Spaniards". They have also suffered an aggressive suppression of Spanish teaching, leaving them only with their local language, by means of the politics of "inmersio linguistica", which literally means "Language drowning". This alone gives us a fairly accurate insight into the attitude of the mob of nationalist politicians: They want to "kill" their citizens with their own language. They don't want them to know anything from the outside but Catalan, and the made up tell tale stories of catalonian history, in which Spain is a kind of obscure, hostile but unknown "outback". They have stolen an estimated 50 billion euros along these 40 years, and have told the people that "The Spaniards" took the money. Meanwhile, if you wanted to make business in Catalonia, you'd had to pay a 3% comission to the nationalist mob, founded by Jordi Pujol (Cuba & Castro anyone?). These criminal politics lead to a situation where many young people in Catalonia actually speak and write Spanish so badly, that they feel uncomfortable, like if they really were in another country, when somebody talks Spanish to them. While some of them are beginning to understand that they have been scammed, others are completely and fanatically inmersed in their leftist safe space bubble of "Freedom For Catalonia", holding an open hostility against anything they deem "Spanish", and their leaders are in a hurry to speed up the so called "Disconnection Process", in an attempt to escape further criminal prosecution from the Spanish Government.

  31. Gran vídeo para conocer Cataluña para los que no somos Catalanes. Cataluña es una nación por mucho que lo niegen los Españoles.

  32. que estupidez de video más mal documentado, la generalidad era el órgano recaudador del rey de Aragón y no fue un órgano de gobierno hasta el siglo XIX partiendo de ahí y siguiendo por los sesgos históricos en a parte de la marca hispánica y la desubicación geográfica constante es para mearse de risa…bah, es un video viejuno y seguramente encargado por Puyol, JAJAJAJA

  33. lo siento muchachos , pero es una realidad rotunda ,un un catalan se parece a un español como un huevo a una castanya
    PD ajo y agua 😜

  34. Fascinating how tv3 and the Catalan Government took the De Lorean to brainwash BBC journalists in the 1970's. Now seriously, even though this is not the most accurate documentary, it shows that the problem between Catalunya and the rest of Spain (not just de Government) comes from far, far away.

  35. Que no te engañen https://politicalradarblog.wordpress.com/2016/03/17/pero-por-que-ya-no-eres-independentista/

  36. Very good, but it needs subtitles in English for the Spanish parts, Spanish for the English parts, and Spanish and English for the Catalan parts (us Catalonians understand Spanish, so Catalan subtitles aren't really necessary).

  37. Mira la vida de El gran Capitan .Que fue el que conquistó gran parte del mediterraneo .Si era catalan .Me suidido .Nunca ha habido un Catalan valeroso , son como los banqueros judios de antaño .Les importa una mierda todo hasta que la cosa se les tuerce.Ellos no tiene ideologia .Solo el dinero .https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gonzalo_Fern%C3%A1ndez_de_C%C3%B3rdoba

  38. Annbynniaeth I Gatalonia Catalonia am byth!!!! Mae'r hawl gan Catalonia I bleidleisio dros Annbynniaeth!! Pob lwc I bobl Catalonia ar dydd Sul Hydref 1 af 2017

  39. Good documental! At least BBC says the truth! Not what we can say of the spanish gov. or any other spanish source. Please understand CATALANS DO NOT WANT TO BE SPANISH (or french or german) we just want to be ourselves. Is it a crime?

  40. Catalonia has NEVER been an independent country, NEVER! As much, it was a small county within the kingdom of Aragon before 1492. All the principles of the nacionalism credo are just lies and an INVENTED HISTORY. Most of catalan people want to be spanish. The propaganda has brain-washed many of the youngsters in this spanish region. That is why they are so interested in ruling the education and mass media. The are NAZIS using new kind of linguistic neo-nazism propaganda that will be for sure studied in future doctorate programs in political science, as something amazing that happened in the european XXI century. They use victimism and lies as weapons. Every word said by a catalan nacionalist is just a lie.

  41. Despite the fact that all politicians tend to lie, this is not a question of politicians quality. The root of the catalan problem can be found 30 years ago, when the education was transfered to the autonomous goverment. Instead of promoting friendship among the diverse spanish regions, nationalists took the advantage of their educational power to spread hatred and increase hostility with the rest of Spain in a very well designed program aimed to create an artificial state that never existed before. All the steps done since the 80's of the last century were designed to create legions of nationalist young voters. Schools and universities and of course mass media have been the amplifiers of the nationaist credo with the aquiescence of the central goverment that has done nothing to stop this totalitarian propaganda. A propaganda with very good resuts I must admit, but based on absolute lies and history forgery. A copy of the nazi methods.

  42. You confuse in the video Aragon and Catalonia. Catalonia did not exist as an empire or as a kingdom. It was only a small county within the kingdom of Aragon!
    You interview nationalists historians loyal to the nationalist world. Propaganda in favour of the independestist.

  43. A BIG WELLCOM Sovereign Catalonia  to Democracy and Freedom from the German Fascists EU dictatorship enjoy your culture, your history and that which makes you unique Catalonia  .
    CONGRATULATIONS !
    The Catalonia issue is yet another demonstration of how the German Fascists 4th Reich EU Dictatorship don't care about people, just about power and control, stand firm Catalonia against Spain and EU Dictatorship.

  44. DIOS BENDICE EL ESTADO INDEPENDIENTE DE CATALUÑA ♥… Lo mejor para su lucha por el reconocimiento internacional de la REPÚBLICA TURCA DEL NORTE DE CHIPRE..
    REPÚBLICA TURQUESA DEL XIPRE DEL NORTE
    ☑….. El rincón de Çağlar.
    REPÚBLICA TURQUESA DEL XIPRE DEL NORTE.. El president del Partit Demòcrata, el viceprimer ministre Serdar Denktas, "va manifestar" la declaració d'independència de Catalunya i "el poble turcoxipriota és un dret d'autogovern". Tard o d'hora tot el món ho acceptarà ", va dir. "Ja no és possible reduir la veu de les persones que volen governar-se. Saludo a Catalunya per utilitzar el seu dret democràtic. La Unió Europea ha fet la següent declaració: "La UE només continuarà dirigint-se a Espanya". Igual que l'acció deslleial i unilateral que ens fan sobre Xipre meridional. Però aquesta vegada no serà tan fàcil com ho vau fer amb els Xipriotes Turcs,

  45. Interesante, pero la verdad…. me da lo mismo lo que suceda. Espana un pais con ina sociedad enderma de racista. Maldita la hora que llegaran a South America.

  46. CATALUÑA HAS NEVER BEEN A COUNTRY, BBC IS SHIT. NOT EVEN NOW THE INDEPENDENCE ARE NOT MORE THAN 35%… los hijoputas catalinos que quieran independencia que se vayan a Madagascar.

  47. So Gaudi built all of his works of Catalan pride on a delusion? It seems obvious to me that from the time Catalan developed a linguistic distinction from the rest of the Iberia peninsula, it was a nation.

  48. James I of Catalonia and Catalonia going abroad!? Are you for real !!. James I the Conqueror was the King of Aragon and BCN was un principado inside of the Kingdom of Aragon.The history you are talking is the history of the Kingdom of Aragon. Catalonia was never ever a Kingdom .Aragon went abroad to Mayorca and parts of Italy.

  49. 5:45 ¿Cataluña se hizo independiente en el siglo X? ¡¡¡Pero si Cataluña ni existía entonces…!!! Vaya puta mierda de vídeo.

  50. the BBC people have been drinking a lot of beers before make this noviembre….the people of Marsella are not french?? or people of Berlín are not germany?? incredible , but all people in the world cant said the truth

  51. When he said that the Civil War practically ended with the Capture of Barcelona, and not Madrid, you know that this documentary is messed up.

  52. It turns out Lluis Companys, elected president of the Generalitat de Catalunya, the autonomous government of a region of Spain, declares on on the 6th of October 1934 the independent Catalan State within the Federal Republic of Spain. Following this, the Republican Government of Spain captures him and sentences Mr. Companys to 30 years in prison. This action was taken by the Republic, months before Franco reached Barcelona.
    Later on, some time afer the Rebels (Franco's side) took control of Barcelona at the end of the Civil War, Mr. Company's undertakes a trial (probably with little guarantees) and is sentenced to death. So the Fascist kill him, but it is the Republicans who placed them in Jail.
    The lesson here is that neither side on the Civil War agreed with an Independent Catalonia not with the contempt of the rule of law. It also follows that is is FALSE that Franco stopped the Independence of Catalonia, notwithstanding that he eliminated its leader.
    Secessionist from Catalonia love playing being victims of Fascism in an effort to nurture abroad support for their cause. However their independence was put down by the previous government, and the suffering in Catalonia was as terrible as it was in other parts of Spain. Their predicament was being more rebellious. But the oppression affected all areas of Spain, not just Catalonia.

  53. “Ninguna clase, ningún estado puede eximir de tomar las armas y organizarse debidamente para repeler la agresión que sufren los derechos del Altar y del Trono, los intereses de la Nación española, su dignidad e independencia.”
    Acta de proclamación de independencia respecto al poder napoleónico aprobada por la Junta Suprema de Cataluña en Gerona el 19 de julio de 1808.
    Un saludo.

  54. Las primeras piedras del nacionalismo se edificaron sobre una invención.
    La de Próspero de Bofarull i Mascaró, barcelonés y director del Archivo de la Corona de Aragón, que decidió, hacia 1847, reescribir el Llibre del Repartiment del Regne de València de la Edad Media con el objetivo de engrandecer y magnificar el papel que tuvieron los catalanes en la conquista del reino de Valencia de 1238. Próspero suprimió en su edición fácsímil del histórico volumen apellidos aragoneses, navarros y castellanos para darle más importancia numérica a los catalanes.
    La manipulación, obra para más inri del hombre encargado de garantizar la integridad del archivo, era sólo el comienzo de una cadena de falsificaciones que pronto alimentaría la semilla del nacionalismo y construiría un relato distorsionado de la Historia de Cataluña, ficción que han llegado hasta nuestros días. A las adulteraciones de Próspero de Bofarull se uniría la conveniente desaparición del testamento de Jaime I legajo 758, según la antigua numeración que establecía los límites de los reinos de Aragón, Valencia y Mallorca y del Condado de Barcelona. Y qué decir del Llibre dels Feyts [Hechos] d'Armes de Catalunya, falsamente considerado una joya de la literatura catalana medieval. Su autor, Joan Gaspar Roig i Jalpí (1624-1691), ejecutó un engaño extraordinario al asegurar que la obra, en realidad escrita por él en el siglo XVII, era una copia de un incunable de 1420 firmado por Bernard Boadas. El apócrifo ha sido usado como fuente para narrar la historia de la patria catalana durante siglos, hasta que en 1948 el medievalista y lingüista Miquel Coll y Alentorn descubrió el timo.
    Estas y otras manipulaciones ponen en evidencia cómo el independentismo catalán ha torcido la Historia a su antojo y que desde Cataluña pasen de largo sobre los retoques que el admirado archivero Próspero de Bofarull un enorme retrato suyo decora la sede del Archivo de la Corona de Aragón, en Barcelona hizo del Llibre del Repartiment. Fue el filólogo e historiador Antonio Ubieto quien denunció en los años 80 que Próspero de Bofarull había modificado el Llibre en el que se registraban las donaciones de casas o terrenos hechas por Jaime I a los que participaron en la conquista de Valencia descartando asientos que se referían a repobladores aragoneses, navarros y castellanos.
    El descubrimiento, que ha pasado prácticamente desapercibido pese a su trascendencia, le supuso a Antonio Ubieto el enfrentamiento con compañeros catalanistas y ser objeto de amenazas.No en vano venía a derribar parte del mito catalán y a cuestionar la labor de quien es recordado como el erudito que reorganizó y puso en valor el archivo tras años de abandono. Próspero de Bofarull inició una saga familiar de renombrado prestigio en Cataluña. Su hijo Manuel Bofarull i de Sartorio (1816-1892), notable historiador, heredaría su cargo de archivero entre 1850 y 1892. Otro ilustre Bofarull es su sobrino Antonio Bofarull i Broca (1821-1892), historiador, poeta, dramaturgo y autor de Confederación catalano-aragonesa (1872), obra que también apuntalaría la senda nacionalista al conferirle al Condado de Barcelona el mismo estatuto que al reino de Aragón. Así, a la manipulación documental de Próspero, explica José Luis Corral Lafuente, profesor y miembro del departamento de Historia Medieval de la Universidad de Zaragoza, se añadió la "tergiversacion de conceptos". Porque este calificativo de "confederación" que lanzaba Antonio Bofarull derivaría pronto en otros de mayor calado. Como el de "Corona Catalano-Aragonesa", término que se justificó por la unión, en 1150, del conde de Barcelona, Ramón Berenguer IV, con Petronila, la heredera del rey de Aragón Ramiro II el Monje. Se trataba de una unión matrimonial y dinástica, pero nunca política, como asevera José Luis Corral Lafuente, autor de Historia contada de Aragón (2010): "El Condado de Barcelona era un estado soberano en el siglo X, con usos y leyes propias, pero nunca un reino". Pese a ello, la ilusión del reino catalán aún sigue vigente en la web de la Generalitat, que sobre el matrimonio de Berenguer IV y Petronila dice: "La unión, aplaudida por los nobles aragoneses, permitió que cada uno de los dos reinos conservara su personalidad política, sus leyes y costumbres…". Del archivero del siglo XIX al nacionalismo del XXI: la extensión de una mentira histórica.
    Los registros manipulados por Próspero de Bofarull (1777-1859) del Llibre del Repartiment, no sólo tenían por objeto maquillar que los catalanes fueron minoría en la conquista y repoblación del reino de Valencia por detrás de aragoneses y navarros. Pretendían además cimentar la preeminencia de la lengua catalana sobre el valenciano, dando fuelle a que ésta habría surgido como influencia del catalán, tal y como explica a Crónica la filóloga María Teresa Puerto, alumna de Ubieto y autora de Cronología histórica de la Lengua valenciana (2007).Perpetuar una historia falsa*Próspero de Bofarull reprodujo los documentos con las omisiones en su obra Colección de Documentos Inéditos de la Corona de Aragón, más conocida como CODOIN, editada entre 1847 y 1856, manual que se usó como referencia por muchos historiadores.
    La importancia de estas manipulaciones del siglo XIX hay que enmarcarlas en el contexto del momento. Surgieron al calor de la Renaixença, movimiento de la recuperación de la lengua catalana, del que la familia Bofarull, sobre todo Antonio Bofarull i Broca, fue protagonista indiscutible. Los Renaxentistas, buscando una grandeza y una identidad nacional, impulsaron leyendas y mitos de la Edad Media como germen del catalanismo. Un ejercicio de "historia presentista", como lo cataloga José Luis Corral Lafuente, consistente en proyectar los deseos del presente en el pasado. Entre las piezas de antaño que se recuperaron está el antes citado Llibre dels Feyts d'armes de Catalunya, una obra que narra la historia de Cataluña desde los tiempos más primitivos hasta el reinado de Alfonso V el Magnánimo (1396-1458) y que se había datado en 1420. Así se creyó hasta que en 1949 los medievalista Miquel Coll i Alentorn y Martí de Riquer desvelaron en Examen Lingüístico del Llibre dels Feyts d'armes de Catalunya que el verdadero autor era Joan Gaspar Roig i Jalpí (1624-1691) y que estaba escrito en el siglo XVII. El falsificador había tratado de emular el lenguaje del siglo XV pero no lo había logrado del todo.
    El testamento desaparecido. Es una verdadera pena que la desaparición del primer testamento de Jaime I, de 1241. Su importancia reside en que era el único hubo tres más en 1243, 1248 y 1262 en el que se establecían los límites de cada reino resultante de las conquistas del rey aragonés: los reinos de Aragón, Valencia y Mallorca y el condado de Barcelona. Se tiene constancia de parte de su contenido porque el historiador Jerónimo Zurita cita su contenido en Anales de la Corona de Aragón (1562 -1580). No está claro cuándo pudo perderse, o sustraerse, pero sí que en él no constaba ninguna intención por parte de Jaime I de otorgar a Cataluña otra consideración que no fuera la de condado feudal. Tras el ultimo testamento (1262), el condado de Barcelona siguió unido al reino de Aragón en la figura de Pedro II, hijo de Jaime I, y rey de Aragón y conde de Barcelona.En paralelo a las manipulaciones se fueron construyendo otros mitos nacionales, como el de la propia senyera, bandera ahora de la comunidad autónoma de Cataluña. La cuatribarrada, propia del reino de Aragón, en tiempos de Jaime I no era ni siquiera una bandera, pues este es un concepto moderno, sino el emblema medieval de la casa de la Corona de Aragón, otorgado por el Papa a sus vasallos: cuatro barras doradas sobre fondo rojo.
    El origen de su vinculación con el Condado Cataluña se atribuyó a la leyenda de Wifredo el velloso (840-897), fundador de la Casa Condal de Barcelona. Este caballero catalán habría sido herido tras socorrer a un emperador Franco en la batalla. Entonces el emperador mojó sus manos en la sangre de Wifredo y trazó sobre su escudo dorado las cuatro franjas. El medievalista catalán Martí de Riquer refutó la leyenda atribuyéndola a la "manía de buscar orígenes místicos en la heráldica" y, en concreto, a una crónica de 1555 del valenciano Pere Antón Beuter, que a su vez se habría inspirado en otro relato del castellano Hernán Mexia.Mas relevante es el sitio de Barcelona en 1714 por parte de las tropas de Felipe V durante la Guerra de Sucesión (1701-1715). El historiador Ricardo García Cárcel cuestiona que el pueblo catalán se alzara en armas contra los castellanos. Lo define como una lucha entre los partidarios del borbón Felipe V y los del archiduque Carlos, de los Austria.
    Rafael Casanova (1660-1743), un jurista que se erigió como defensor heroico durante ese sitio, fue exaltado también en la Renaixença del siglo XIX, cuando en 1863 se le dedicó una calle y después una estatua en Barcelona, en 1888, durante la Exposición Universal. Casanova, que aparece como figura central en el cuadro de Antoni Estruch i Bros, 11 de septiembre, enarbolando no la senyera sino la bandera de Santa Eulalia que identifica la ciudad Condal, defendió la causa del archiduque Carlos, y sobrevivió a la batalla para seguir ejerciendo como hombre de leyes hasta su muerte, en 1743.Para historiadores como José Luis Corral Lafuente, la cascada de manipulaciones sólo han servido para restar credibilidad al rico legado de un condado que fue soberano e influyente sin necesidad de estas falsificaciones y leyendas más acordes con los anhelos de independencia del sector catalanista.
    Un saludo

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